Okay, I admit it, I cheat sometimes.  I use several different commercial adhesives to fletch arrows, glue leather, and attach field points.  I sometimes use commercial finishes on arrows and bows.  The following are some recipes I’ve tried for home-made alternatives to Duco Cement, TiteBond, polyurethane, and other commercial products.

Type glue or finish and materials needed: Instructions:
Hide Glue:Chunks of raw animal hide, untreated if at all possible.  Dog rawhide chews will work, if not artificially flavored.  The “recombined” chews dissolve better.  Scrapings from dry-scraping or thinning a hide in preparation for tanning work well too.Water to cover.

Old pot or large juice can

Source of controllable heat.  A gas grill, hot plate, white gas camping stove, or fire will work.  

Cut rawhide up into tiny chips, the smaller the better.  Place in pot or can, cover with water and heat just below boiling, stirring regularly, until hide breaks down into a thick goo.  Add water as needed to keep from scorching.  You’ll want to do this outside, as the smell can be overpowering, but won’t kill brain cells like Duco Cement will.When the hide has broken down completely (or almost so), pour it through some sort of strainer to remove any remaining chunks of hide or gristle that didn’t dissolve completely.Your glue is ready to use warm for attaching backing to bows or fletching arrows.

Hide glue is water soluble, so can be cleaned up by soaking in warm water.

Primitive “glue sticks” to use for hafting points on arrow shafts:
4 parts pine pitch (other tree sap may work, but I have not tried)
1 part sifted wood ashes or ground charcoal bricquets (not instant lighting kind!)
1 part animal fat  such as rendered lard, sheep fat (lanolin) or beef tallow.  Vegetable oil may work as well.Small soup canSource of controllable heat.  A gas grill, hot plate, white gas camping stove, or fire will work. 
Gather pine pitch from injured trees or make several diagonal cuts at the base of a branch of a small pine. Tack a small cup under the branch to catch the pitch as it oozes from the cuts.  Pick any dirt, bark, leaves or other impurities out as much as possible.Heat slowly in a small soup can in a pot of water (double boiler) until melted completely.  Stir in  wood ash and small amounts of the animal fat until the consistency is approximately like Elmer’s glue.  Don’t overheat or the turpentine will separate from the rosin, weakening the glue, and potentially catching fire from the turpentine fumes.The glue may be used as-is or poured onto waxed paper and rolled into balls or a cylinder as it cools.  This can be used like a glue stick, heated with a lighter or candle to soften and apply.

Pitch glue made the same way without the animal fat is a good waterproofing seal on sinew wrapping.  Be sure to sand down any rough edges, especially on fletching wraps, as it can cut like glass.

Bone and Hoof (Gelatin) glue1-4 packages of unflavored gelatinwater

Small soup can

Source of controllable heat.  A gas grill, hot plate, white gas camping stove, or fire will work. 

Thoroughly mix  three parts cool, but not cold, water to one part gelatin in a small container (a clean soup can works well). Let stand for  fifteen minutes until water is fully absorbed. Place can in a pot of just boiling water until heated through and all gelatin is melted. Using a candy or meat thermometer, heat to approximately 160 degrees f. Stir thoroughly, until texture is like pancake syrup. Let cool slightly before use. If too thick add warm water and stir well.  Used for applying rawhide, snakeskin, or even sinew backing to bows.  May be used for splicing billets, but I have never tried it.

Can be stored, covered, in the refrigerator and reheated in a double boiler for later use

How to apply a water-resistant wax finish on bows 
(or other wood items)
Cake of paraffin or beeswaxSource of controllable heat:  grill, hot plate, propane torch, very small fire, very large candle, stove, pretty much anything.  I like to use my kerosene heater in the winter.Scrap of cotton cloth.  T-shirt material works well.
After all gluing is complete, including attachment of nocking tips and leather grips, slowly and gently heat the surface of the bow.  When the wood is almost uncomfortably warm to the touch, rub the wax quickly over the surface of the wood until either a good slick coating of wax is visible or until the wax begins to appear white and crumbly on the surface.  If the wood was too hot, the wax will begin to run.Using cloth, rub the wax deep into the wood. Until cool.  Reapply at least twice, heating less each time.  Rub to a dull shine with the now wax-saturated cloth.Reapply wax as it wears off by heating the surface slightly and rubbing down with a small chunk of wax. 
Hand-rubbed protective finish for cane arrows:Olive or other seed oil such as walnut, or Murphy’s oil soap. Using a cloth or your bare hands, rub well into slightly warmed arrow shafts after all fletching or hafting glue has been applied. Allow to dry thoroughly and buff with a dry cloth to a dull shine.

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